The numbers are in and the facts speak for themselves, air pollution in Shanghai is way down in the last year.
To better visualize the data take a look at our new Air Pollution in Shanghai Infographic, which reminds us there is still a long way to go and we need to take precautions.
Infographic design work by Diatom
Yes, we did have some bad days in the winter of 2016, 2017 when the index reading for air quality in Shanghai exceeded 200.
The feel that it's getting worse was intensified by the fact that these ‘Very Unhealthy Air Quality’ days were concentrated within a short period of time and followed upon extensive world-wide coverage of the extreme air pollution in Beijing.
Some Shanghai expats took to social media to suggest they were considering leaving the city in interest of their family's health.
For expats who choose to remain in Shanghai for its career opportunities and exciting expat lifestyle, however, there are ways we can, and should, protect ourselves from air pollution in Shanghai.
Links to articles on how to protect yourself can be found below.
Considering the severe air pollution we had in Shanghai in 2013 we should be jumping for joy.
The average PM2.5 density for Shanghai in 2016 came in at 45, a 15% reduction from the 2015 density of 53ug/m3.
This is also 27% lower than the 2013 average of 62ug/m3.
Air pollution in Shanghai is now back to level's experienced prior to 2013.
Although official reports of Shanghai PM2.5 data were only published beginning in 2013, a report in the China Daily on January 9th, 2012 stated that "The average annual density of PM2.5 in Shanghai was 44 to 53 micrograms a cu m from 2006 to 2010..."
Shanghai has actually exceeded the target set by the State Council in 2013, and one year ahead of time.
The Airborne Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan (2013-17) released in September 2013 by China's Environmental Protection Ministry, and further legislated locally in the Shanghai Clean Air Action Plan (2013-17), requires Shanghai to reduce its annual average PM2.5 density by 20% from the base year of 2012 by 2017.
This target of 48ug/m3 for 2017 was already surpassed by more than 6% in 2016.*
In January 2016 the Shanghai People’s Congress unveiled a stricter goal for reducing average PM2.5 density to 42ug/m3 by 2020.
This, however, means only a further 6.7% reduction over the next 4 years; not a very ambitious target.
The need for a more ambitious goal is clear when we look at various international organizations' standards for healthy air.
The new air quality goal for Shanghai does not meet China’s own standard for healthy air, let alone the more strict standards set by the WHO and US EPA, as we can see here:
Our infographic shows the causes of Shanghai air pollution as tested between 2012-2014.
As foreigners, we should acknowledge that a significant percentage of China’s air pollution is produced during the production of consumer goods for export.
In the August 10, 2013 edition of The Economist magazine it was reported that "About a quarter of China's carbon emissions is produced making goods for export."
Another report stated that emissions from ships in Shanghai (many loading up consumer goods for export) accounted for between 8-10% of Shanghai PM2.5.
As Chinese incomes rise, however, domestic consumption is becoming a much larger contributor to air pollution in China.
In early January 2017 China’s Minister of environmental protection, Chen Jining, remarked during a press conference that detailed analysis showed emissions from automobiles have become the primary source of urban atmospheric fine particles (PM2.5) in major cities, accounting for 31.3 percent in Beijing, and 29.2 percent in Shanghai.
Although Beijing once again experienced extreme smog during the winter, its average PM2.5 density actually decreased substantially from 80.6 in 2015 to 73ug/m3 in 2016; a more than 9% reduction.
This is 24% lower than Beijing's average PM2.5 density in 2012 of 95.7ug/m3. *
Like Shanghai, air pollution in Beijing is now back to level's experienced prior to 2013. (Reports from 2012 state "the PM2.5 density in the capital decreased from 100 to 110 micrograms a cu m in 2000 to 70 to 80 micrograms a cu m in 2010...")
The target set for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in the The Airborne Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan (2013-17) was a 25% reduction from the base year of 2012. The plan also states that "annual concentration in Beijing should not exceed 60 micrograms per cubic meter."
Considering it will require a further 18% reduction from the 2016 average, the goal of 60ug/m3 will be very difficult to achieve in 2017.
Government efforts in the North of China to tackle smog are critical to reducing air pollution in Shanghai during the winter months.
As the data shows, about 20% of Shanghai smog is caused by pollution blown in from other provinces. During the summer months when Shanghai air quality is at its best the wind blows mainly from the South East off the ocean. So it's during winter months, when the wind direction changes, that we get most of this incoming air pollution.
Plans have been outlined to reduce the main culprit of Northern China's severe air pollution; increased coal burning for heating during winter months, by switching to renewable energy and other cleaner energy sources.
For more info on how to protect yourself from air pollution in Shanghai please check our articles on:
Since 2015 local authorities have issued a 2-day Shanghai air pollution forecast. A new plan calls for a five-day forecast to be launched in 2017.
Some of the China apps for air quality include 3-day smog forecasts for Shanghai.
* Since no official reports were issued for PM2.5 levels before 2013 in China, the numbers for 2012 and earlier can be confusing.
Some reports regarding the PM2.5 density target for Shanghai for 2017 use the figure of 49.6ug/m3, stating that this as a 20% reduction from the 2013 average density. However, the Action Plan refers to 2012 as the base year and other reports like one in the Shanghai Daily from February 5th, 2015 state the goal is 48ug/m3 for 2017.
The figure of 60ug/m3 for 2012 in our infographic is estimated based on this 48ug/m3 target for 2017.
* Like Shanghai's 2012 density and 2017 target, Beijing's numbers can also be confusing. We have one report from China's official Xinhua news agency from December 25th, 2016 stating that the average PM2.5 density in Beijing in 2012 was 95.7ug/m3.
Other reports, however, state that the 2017 target of 60ug/m3 is a 25% reduction from 2012's density. That, however, would mean 2012's density was just 80ug/m3 which would contradict the same article's opening statement that Beijing did see a tiny improvement in 2013's average (89.5) over 2012's average.
Another report in the China Daily states that Beijing is well on its way to meeting the 25% reduction target, which is only plausible if the 95.7 number is correct and 60ug/m3 number is more a long-term goal, rather than a target that must be reached in 2017.
More articles on air pollution in our Shanghai air quality menu.
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