How should you cope with China smog as an Expat?
China is one of the most exciting places to live and work in. The culture is interesting and rich, the people are friendly, there are a lot of fun things to do and exotic places to see.
It also provides a diverse international environment to raise your children.
But as expatriates move to China to pursue their interests and dreams, one thing they have to grapple with is the high levels of air pollution they have to endure daily.
Below is a look at how, as an expatriate, you can protect yourself and your children from China smog.
We also a list of where to buy pollution face masks and air purifiers in China at the end of the article.
Smog is made of up of sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide(NO2), carbon monoxide(CO), particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10) and ground ozone (O3).
Though all these substances are harmful, PM2.5 and Ozone (O3) will have the most impact on your health, due to their microscopic size.
PM2.5 is emitted during combustion activities such as coal burning, diesel combustion in motor vehicles, wood burning, power plants and industrial processes. The winter months in China see the highest levels of PM2.5 due to increased coal burning and weather patterns.
Ozone is formed when Nitrous oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react with sunlight. VOCs and NOx are emitted by chemical plants, refineries, car exhaust and vapors from consumer solvents. Shanghai weather in the summer is ideal for creating Ozone.
Due to the dangers that particulates and ground ozone pose, the World Health Organization provided guidelines in 2005 for safe levels of these pollutants.
For instance, for PM2.5, exposure within a 24-hour period should not exceed 25 micrograms per cubic meter (ug/m3), while the average exposure over a year should not exceed 10 micrograms per cubic meter (ug/m3).
Chinese standards are less strict, allowing for a yearly PM2.5 average of 35 micrograms per cubic meter.
The levels of pollution experienced in China, especially PM2.5 particulates, are many times higher than the allowed safe levels. On most days, air quality index ranks at above 150 in Chinese cities such as Beijing, with extremely smoggy days being as much as 10 times higher than WHO recommended safe levels.
The WHO has classified particulate matter as a carcinogenic. PM2.5, being a lot smaller than PM10, will penetrate past the bronchi into the alveoli (the air exchange region in the lungs) and over time, can cause lung cancer_ up to 36% more increase for every 10 micrograms/m3.
Other documented complications of particulate matter and ozone exposure include cardiovascular complications, birth defects and premature deaths.
Ozone, when found at ground level is bad and when breathed in, can cause irritation of the lungs, worsening of asthma attacks and other respiratory diseases, inflammation and infection of airways among others.
In August 2015, authorities in Beijing grounded 2.5 million cars in preparation for the 2015 China Victory Day Parade. The result was clear blue skies for two weeks, with the AQI as low as 17. This was the cleanest Beijing air had been in ages.
But do clear skies mean there is nothing to worry about?
Since ozone formation increases with increased sunlight, clear skies means that levels of ozone will continue to rise throughout the day as VOCs and NOx continue to be emitted into the air by vehicles and through other industrial processes.
Not to mention, VOCs are still emitted indoors by household chemicals, furnishings and cooking gas.
There could also be other sources of air pollution to watch out for, such as pollen and mould.
If you have a sensitive respiratory system, you might still find yourself reacting to pollutants in the air, even though pollutant levels on non-smoggy days are considered safe.
In an economy as large as China's, government efforts to tackle smog will take a long time to make a noticeable impact. The question that begs therefore is, what can you do to protect yourself against China smog during your stay?
Here we give you some proven solutions to help protect you from the dangers of air pollution.
In the 1st century AD, a Roman commander by the name of Pliny the Elder advised miners to use animal bladders to protect themselves from red oxide. This, incidentally, was the first time a pollution mask, aka respirator, was used. Later iterations of the respirator included using wet cloth or rubberised material.
A look at most pollution-related photos from China reveals that though many people wear masks, most of them are either surgical masks or masks made out of cloth.
Just like the wet cloth respirator recommended by Leonardo DaVinci in the 16th century, or Pliny’s animal bladder, surgical masks and most other low-quality masks are permeable and thus only provide protection against certain large particles and not the more dangerous pollutants in China smog.
Since surgical masks are not designed with carbon filters, nor do they fit tightly against the wearer’s face, they are not effective against PM2.5, PM10, viruses or bacteria.
You can see therefore, why when buying a smog mask, knowing its composition is important for you to get maximum protection.
When purchasing pollution face masks in China be sure to check these attributes:
Air pollution is more harmful to children as their respiratory systems are still developing. When enrolling your kids to a school, find out whether:
International schools specially for expat kids tend to uphold air quality standards a lot better.
There are many apps through which you can monitor china smog levels, even in real-time.
If you are about to go outside of your house or office, it helps to check china apps for air quality first.
You can now also purchase one of a number of relatively inexpensive devices for monitoring your own indoor air quality.
You’ll experience better air quality by living in areas in the outskirts of cities, especially where you are surrounded by a lot of vegetation. As mentioned earlier, vegetation is a natural air cleanser.
If you live in the city, avoid getting an apartment too close to congested roads.
Wherever you choose to live, your house should be well sealed to keep out pollutants.
You should also have air filtration systems in each room.
Before buying air purifiers, get the air quality in your house tested as this will help you to identify how many you need.
Various studies have shown that certain foods, especially fruits and vegetables that have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant qualities will strengthen your immune system and help you fend off China smog related complications.
Foods rich in omega 3 fatty acids, green leafy vegetables and citrus fruits that are rich in vitamin C and anti-oxidants, as well as herbs such as ginger and mint, should make it into your diet regularly.
If you have been diagnosed with asthma, you probably use controller medication or a bronchodilator inhaler, or both.
You need to take your medication as prescribed by your doctor and have your inhaler on you at all times in case you experience shortness of breath.
When you are regular with your treatments, your sensitivity to triggers will lessen.
See here for more solutions to cope with air pollution.
Research has shown that people who exercise have stronger respiratory systems which are able to eliminate pollutants more effectively.
The safest place to exercise is indoors but if you like running outdoors in China, you can still do so if you take these necessary precautions:
Note: The AQI figures mentioned in this article are based on the U.S. Air Quality Index standard. For a comparison of the U.S. aqi and China aqi standards see our China Air Quality article.
Cambridge Mask’s N99 rated respirators for both children and adults use military filtration technology to filter out over 99% of particulate pollution as small as PM0.3. Its carbon filter is also treated with silver, killing over 99.6% of bacteria and viruses.
Dr. Harriet Leyland has lived in China and worked as a doctor for International SOS in Beijing.
She has years of experience advising expats and locals in China on how to cope with air pollution- out and indoors. She has recently started to collect her research and comment on many misconceptions about China smog in her blog: www.thesmogblog.org.
She hopes this information will be used to further understanding, and improve you and your loved ones’ health and well-being whilst in China and other countries that experience high levels of pollution.
Shanghai Health and Safety Front Page